Morton's neuroma is a swollen or thickened nerve in the ball of your foot. When your toes are squeezed together too often and for too long, the nerve that runs between your toes can swell and get thicker. This swelling can make it painful when you walk on that foot. High-heeled, tight, or narrow shoes can make pain worse. Sometimes, changing to shoes that give your toes more room can help.
Morton's neuroma develops for several reasons. The primary reason is wearing narrow toe-box shoes, which compress the metatarsal heads. Certain anatomical factors also make nerve compression more likely with the narrow toe box shoes. In some people fibers, the medial and lateral plantar nerves converge close to the heads of the third and fourth metatarsals. This junction creates a larger nerve structure between the metatarsal heads making it more vulnerable to compression.
Outward signs of Morton's neuroma, such as a lump, are extremely rare. Morton's neuroma signs and symptoms, which usually occur unexpectedly and tend to worsen over time, include, pain on weight bearing (while walking) - a shooting pain affecting the contiguous halves of two toes, which may be felt after only a short time (of weight bearing). Sometimes there may be a dull pain rather than a sharp one. Most commonly, pain is felt between the third and fourth toes. Typically, a patient will suddenly experience pain while walking and will have to stop and remove their shoe. Burning. Numbness. Parasthesia, tingling, pricking, or numbness with no apparent long-term physical effect. Commonly known as pins-and-needles. A sensation that something is inside the ball of the foot.
The physician will make the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma based upon the patient's symptoms as described above in an interview, or history, and a physical examination. The physical examination will reveal exceptional tenderness in the involved interspace when the nerve area is pressed on the bottom of the foot. As the interspace is palpated, and pressure is applied from the top to the bottom of the foot, a click can sometimes be felt which reproduces the patient's pain. This is known as a Mulder's sign. Because of inconsistent results, imaging studies such as MRI or ultrasound scanning are not useful diagnostic tools for Morton's neuroma. Thus the physician must rely exclusively on the patient's history and physical examination in order to make a diagnosis.
Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment for Morton?s neuroma will depend on how long you've had the condition and its severity. Simple non-surgical treatments are effective for some people. Others may need surgery. If Morton's neuroma is diagnosed early, treatment will aim to reduce the pressure on the affected nerve. This is usually the nerve between the third and fourth toe bones (metatarsals). Your GP or podiatrist (foot specialist) may recommend changing the type of shoes you usually wear, shoes with a wider toe area may help ease the pressure on the nerve in your foot. Using orthotic devices, such as a support for the arch of your foot to help relieve the pressure on the nerve. Anti-inflammatory painkillers or a course of steroid injections into the affected area of your foot may help ease the pain and inflammation. Alcohol and local anaesthetic is injected into your foot using ultrasound for guidance, studies have shown that this type of treatment is effective. Resting your foot and massaging your toes may also help to relieve the pain. You can make an ice pack by freezing a small bottle of water and rolling it over the affected area.
If other therapies have not worked it may be necessary to perform surgery. As surgery may result in permanent numbness in the affected toe, doctors ten to use this procedure as a last resort. However, in most cases surgery is extremely effective. The patient usually receives a local anesthetic. Surgery involves either removing the nerve, or removing the pressure on the nerve. Two surgical approaches are possible. The dorsal approach, the surgeon makes an incision on the top of the foot, allowing the patient to walk soon after surgery, because the stitches are not on the weight-bearing side of the foot. The plantar approach, the surgeon makes an incision on the sole of the foot. In most cases the patient will be in crutches for about three weeks. The resulting scar may make walking uncomfortable. However, with this approach the neuroma can be reached easily and resected without cutting any structures. There is a small risk of infection around the toes after surgery.